Eviction Primer

Eviction Primer

If you’re in the rental industry long enough, you will eventually find yourself needing to evict a tenant. It can be a daunting task, especially if you’ve never been through the process. Many landlords find the eviction procedure to be confusing, time-consuming, and expensive. Being proactive and knowledgeable about your state’s eviction laws is essential for effective property management.

Rental evictions are governed by local, state, and federal law that will provide parameters for the process. When a tenant has violated the lease, a landlord may begin the eviction process to reclaim ownership of the rental. Knowing the legal process can assist property owners and managers to protect their assets and ensure continued and timely rental incomes.

Overview of Eviction Pain Points

Landlords have to deal with several pain points that can lead to the eviction of a tenant. There are five frequent reasons to evict a tenant.

1. Non-payment of Rent

Non-payment of rent is a common reason for landlords to evict a tenant. It may be cause for immediate eviction in some states. The landlord must follow proper legal procedures before filing an eviction action. This includes providing the tenant with a termination notice and a chance to pay the rent and late fees. The court may dismiss the eviction action if you do not follow these procedures correctly.

2. Property Damage

Property damage is another reason for a landlord or property manager to evict a tenant. The damage must be greater than the property’s natural wear and tear. Before evicting a tenant for property damage, the landlord must prove that the damage is extensive and continuing. The eviction process must also begin within a certain time frame. The landlord can proceed with the eviction if these conditions are met, if the tenant does not fix the problem, or if they do not move out within a specified time period.

3. Use of the Property for Illegal Activities

Using a property for illegal purposes is a valid reason for a landlord to evict a tenant. While this may seem obvious, it’s always smart to make sure that your lease clearly states this. Illegal activity may include:

  • distributing illegal substances out of the property
  • operation of (even a legitimate) business out of the home
  • illegal firearm use
  • possession of stolen property

4. Lease Violations

A lease violation can lead to an eviction. This can include a tenant that sublets the property to occupants that aren’t on the lease or if they violate a no-pets policy. It is important that the landlord follows a strict procedure before evicting a tenant for lease violations. This includes a written notice that specifies the violated lease terms. If the tenant fails to correct these violations within an allotted time period, then the landlord may begin eviction proceedings.

5. Using the Residence as a Place of Business

Using a rental property for business purposes can be a violation of the lease agreement. If a tenant is found to be operating a business out of their rental home, even if it is a legitimate one, they can be evicted for using the property for illegal purposes. The landlord must follow proper legal procedures before filing an eviction action. This includes providing the tenant with written notice that specifies which lease terms have been violated.

Things to Know Before Initiating an Eviction Process

Before initiating a tenant eviction process, a landlord or property manager must be aware of the following:

Know the Law

It is important to know the local laws regarding eviction. Each state has different eviction laws and procedures. It is important to follow these laws to avoid legal issues.

Grounds for Eviction

The landlord must have valid grounds for eviction. This can include non-payment of rent, breach of lease agreement, or illegal activities on the property.

Notice Requirements

The landlord must provide the tenant with a written notice of the eviction process. The type of notice and the length of the notice period required will depend on the grounds for eviction and the local laws.

Proper Documentation

The landlord must have all necessary documentation to support the eviction process. This should include:

  • the lease agreement
  • written notices
  • proof of any violations by the tenant

Court Proceedings

If the tenant does not leave the property after the notice period, the landlord must file an eviction lawsuit in court. The landlord should be prepared to attend court hearings and present evidence to support the eviction.

Tenant’s Rights

The tenant has the right to defend against the eviction and may choose to employ legal representation. The landlord must follow the proper procedures to ensure that the tenant’s rights are respected throughout the process.

Possession of the Property

After obtaining a court order for eviction, the landlord may be required to work with law enforcement to physically remove the tenant from the property.

Overall, initiating a tenant eviction process can be a complex and legally sensitive issue. It is important for the landlord to understand responsibilities and obligations under the law. If there are questions, it’s key to seek legal advice if necessary.

Avoiding Mid-Way Stops During the Eviction Process

To avoid mid-way stops when evicting a tenant, a landlord must have a clear understanding of the process and the applicable laws in their jurisdiction. Here are some steps that can be taken:

Set Clear Expectations

The landlord or property manager should set clear expectations with the tenant from the beginning of the lease term. This includes the rent amount, due date, and consequences for late payments or non-payment. A lease agreement should be signed that outlines these terms.

Consistent Rent Collection

Rent should be collected consistently and on time. This helps to establish a pattern of behavior and sets a clear expectation for the tenant. If the tenant makes partial payments, the you should clearly communicate with the tenant to discuss any applicable late fees and how these partial payments will be applied.

Use a Property Management Software

Using a property management software for payments will allow you to enforce deadlines and make it easy for the tenant to pay rent on time. The tenant can set up automatic payments and receive reminders about upcoming due dates. This helps to ensure that rent is paid on time and avoids mid-way stops in the eviction process.

Document Everything

Document all communication with the tenant regarding rent payments, including the amount paid, date paid, and any late fees assessed. This documentation can be used as evidence in court if the eviction process is necessary.

Act Quickly

If the tenant fails to pay rent or violates the lease agreement, you should act quickly. The longer you wait, the more difficult it may be to enforce the eviction process.

By setting clear expectations, collecting rent consistently, and acting quickly when necessary, you can minimize the risk of tenant eviction and ensure that the eviction process is successful if it becomes necessary.

Documentations and Information to Collect 

Before evicting a tenant, there are several documents that a landlord should collect to support their case. These documents may include:

Lease Agreement

A copy of the signed lease agreement between the landlord and tenant is essential. This document outlines the terms and conditions of the lease. It should include the rent amount, payment due date, and any rules and regulations related to the tenancy.

Payment Records

Keep accurate records of rent payments. Key pieces of information to keep are:

  • amount paid
  • date paid
  • any late fees assessed

These records can help to establish a pattern of behavior and show whether the tenant has consistently paid rent on time.

Written Notices

If the tenant has violated the lease agreement, provide written notices outlining the violation. This should include the consequences if the violation is not corrected. These notices should be dated and kept for documentation purposes.

Communication with the Tenant

Any communication with the tenant regarding the eviction process should be documented. This includes phone calls, emails, or text messages. Keeping a record of all communication can help to establish the timeline of events and provide evidence if needed in court.

Proof of Non-Payment or Breach of Lease

If the eviction is based on non-payment of rent or a breach of the lease agreement, you should collect evidence to support your case. This may include bounced checks, bank statements, or photographs of any property damage caused by the tenant.

By collecting and organizing these documents, you can present a strong case in court and increase the likelihood of a successful eviction. It is important to keep all documentation organized and readily accessible to ensure that the eviction process runs smoothly.

What to Expect During the Eviction Process

The eviction process can be a lengthy and complex process, and it is important for landlords or property managers to be prepared for what to expect. Here are some general steps you can expect during a tenant eviction process:

Step 1: Notice to the Tenant

The eviction process typically begins with the landlord or property manager serving a notice to the tenant, informing them of their violation of the lease agreement, and providing a timeline for them to correct the issue. The notice should be in writing and delivered according to the legal requirements in the landlord’s jurisdiction.

Step 2: Court Filing

If the tenant fails to correct the issue or vacate the property by the deadline provided in the notice, you may need to file a lawsuit or petition with the local court. You will need to pay a filing fee and provide documentation to support their case, such as the lease agreement and any records of non-payment or lease violations.

Step 3: Summons and Hearing

Once the lawsuit or petition is filed, the tenant will be served with a summons, requiring them to appear in court on a specific date for a hearing. The landlord or a property manager will need to attend the hearing and present the case to the judge. The tenant will also have the opportunity to present their case.

Step 4: Judgment and Order

After hearing both sides, the judge will make a decision and issue an order. If the order is in favor of the landlord, it will typically require the tenant to vacate the property within a specified period of time. If the tenant fails to vacate, the landlord may need to obtain a writ of possession from the court to remove the tenant.

Step 5: Removal of Tenant

If the tenant still does not vacate the property, the landlord or property manager may need to arrange for the sheriff or a licensed process server to remove the tenant and their belongings from the property.

The timeline for a tenant eviction process can vary depending on the state and circumstances. In general, a landlord or property manager should expect the entire process to take 30 days or more from start to finish. Once a court hearing is held and a judge orders eviction, it can take several more weeks for a sheriff or marshal to carry out a forcible eviction if necessary.

Hiring a Lawyer

When it comes to tenant eviction, the question of whether or not to hire a lawyer depends on the situation at hand. In some cases, it may not be necessary to have a lawyer, while in others, having the right legal representation can be very beneficial.

The Pros

In general, hiring a lawyer may be beneficial in situations where the tenant contests the eviction or when there are complex legal issues involved. For example, if the tenant disputes the reason for the eviction, a lawyer can help to navigate the legal process and provide guidance on how to present evidence and argue your case.

Additionally, if there are complex legal issues such as violations of housing codes, lease disputes, or discrimination allegations, a lawyer can help to ensure that all legal requirements are met and that the eviction is carried out properly.

Another situation where hiring a lawyer may be beneficial is when dealing with a tenant who has legal representation. In this case, having a lawyer on your side can help to level the playing field and ensure that your interests are protected.

The Cons

However, it is important to note that hiring a lawyer can be expensive, and in some cases, it may not be necessary. For example, if the eviction is straightforward and the tenant does not contest it, a lawyer may not be necessary. In this case, you can likely handle the eviction process yourself, although it is always a good idea to consult with a legal expert to ensure that you are following all the proper procedures.

In summary, the decision of whether or not to hire a lawyer during a tenant eviction depends on the specific circumstances of the case. If the eviction is complex or contested, or if the tenant has legal representation, it may be beneficial to seek legal assistance. However, if the eviction is straightforward and uncontested, it may not be necessary to hire a lawyer.

Alternatives to Eviction

There are several alternatives to evicting a tenant that landlords or property managers can consider, including:

  1. Payment Plans: One alternative to eviction is to work with the tenant to set up a payment plan for any unpaid rent. This can help the tenant catch up on missed payments and avoid eviction.
  2. Mediation: Mediation is a process where a neutral third party helps to facilitate communication between the landlord and tenant to come to a mutually acceptable resolution. This can help to resolve conflicts and prevent eviction.
  3. Lease Termination Agreements: If a tenant is struggling to make rent payments, but is otherwise a good tenant, the landlord may consider terminating the lease early and allowing the tenant to move out without penalty. This can be a good option for both parties if the tenant is struggling to afford the rent.

It’s important to remember that each situation is unique, and landlords should carefully consider their options before deciding to evict a tenant. In some cases, alternative solutions may be the best course of action for both the landlord and the tenant.


Overall, the eviction process can be complex and time-consuming, and it is important for landlords or property managers to follow all legal requirements in their jurisdiction. It is also important to maintain good communication with the tenant throughout the process and to keep detailed records of all communication and documentation related to the eviction.

If you’re a landlord or property manager who is new to tenant eviction, you must familiarize yourself with the legal procedures and requirements in your state. On top of that, you should find the right tools to screen tenants, document property management processes, and manage payments and insurance. Visit LandlordStation to explore some of these essential tools that will make your life and work easier – all in one place.